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Mesoscale Meteorology


Hiscox, A., S. Bhimireddy, J. Wang, D.A.R. Kristovich, J. Sun, N. Patton, S. Oncly, W. Brown, 2022: When Stable Isn’t Stable: Exploring the Variability of the Nocturnal Boundary Layer with the SAVANT Field Campaign, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, revision in review.

Bhimireddy, S. R., J. Wang, A. L. Hiscox, and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2022: Influence of Stability, and Surface Roughness on Turbulence during the Stable Atmospheric Variability and Transport (SAVANT) Field Campaign. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol., 61, 1273-1289. https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-21-0160.1

Griggs, C. B., C. F. M. Lewis, D. A. Kristovich, 2022: A late glacial lake-effect climate regime and abundant tamarack in the Great Lakes region, North America. Quarternary Resch., 1-19. doi:10.1017/qua.2021.76

Notaro, M., Y. Zhong, P. Xue, C. Peters-Lidard, C. Cruz, E. Kemp, D. A. R. Kristovich, M. Kulie, J. Wang, C. Huang, and S. J. Vavrus, 2021: Cold Season Performance of the NU-WRF Regional Climate Model in the Great Lakes Region. J. Hydromet., 22 (9), 2423-2454. https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/hydr/22/9/JHM-D-21-0025.1.xml.


Linares, A., C. H. Wu, A. J. Bechle, E. J. Anderson, and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2019: Unexpected rip currents induced by a meteotsunami. Nature Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-019-38716-2.

Kristovich, D.A., E. Takle, G.S. Young, and A. Sharma, 2018: 100 Years of Progress in Mesoscale Planetary Boundary Layer Meteorological Research. Meteorological Monographs, 59, 19.1–19.41, https://doi.org/10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-18-0023.1

Kristovich, D. A., L. Bard, L. Stoecker, and B. Geerts, 2018: Influence of Lake Erie on a Lake Ontario lake-effect snow storm. J. Appl. Climatol. Meteorol., 57, 2019-2033.

Sharma, A., A.F. Hamlet, H.J.S. Fernando, C.E. Catlett, D.E. Horton, V.R. Kotamarthi, D.A.R. Kristovich, A. Packman, J.L. Tank, and D.J. Wuebbles, 2018: The need for an integrated land-lake-atmospheric modeling system for the Great Lakes. Earth’s Future, 6(10), 1366-1379. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018EF000870.

Kristovich, D. A., 2017. Lake Climates. The International Encyclopedia of Geography. 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0887

Kristovich, D.A.R., R. Clark, J. Frame, B. Geerts, K. Knupp, K. Kosiba, N. Laird, J. Minder, N. Metz, T. Sikora, J. Steenburgh, S. Steiger, J. Wurman, G. Young, 2017: The Ontario Winter Lake-Effect Systems Field Campaign: Scientific and Educational Adventures to Further Our Knowledge and Prediction of Lake-Effect Storms. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98, 315-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00034.1.

Bechle, A. J., C. H. Wu, D. A. R. Kristovich, E. J. Anderson, D. J. Schwab, and A. B. Rabinovich, 2016: Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes: An Overlooked Hazard. Nature Sci. Rep., 6, 37832. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep37832.

Geerts, B., B. Pokharel, and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2015: Blowing Snow as a Natural Glaciogenic Cloud Seeding Mechanism. Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 5017–5033. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-15-0241.1

Xu, X., T. Zhao, F. Liu, S. L. Gong, D. Kristovich, C. Lu, Y. Guo, X. Cheng, Y. Wang, and G. Ding, 2016: Climate modulation of the Tibetan Plateau on haze in China. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1365-1375. doi:10.5194/acpd-15-28915-2015.

Bechle, A. J., D. A. R. Kristovich, and C. H. Wu, 2015: Meteotsunami occurrences and causes in Lake Michigan. J. Geophys. Resch. – Oceans, 120, 8422-8438. doi:10.1002/2015JC011317


Bard, L. and D.A.R. Kristovich, 2012: Trend Reversal in Lake Michigan Contribution to Snowfall. J. Appl. Meteor. and Climatol., 51, 2038–2046. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-12-064.1

Workoff, T. E., D.A.R. Kristovich, N. F. Laird, R. LaPlante, and D. Leins, 2012: A climatological analysis of deep convective interaction with the Lake Erie marine boundary layer. Wea. Forecasting. 27, 1279-1289.

Kunkel, K.E., D.R. Easterling, D.A.R. Kristovich, B. Gleason, L. Stoecker, and R. Smith, 2012: Meteorological causes of the secular variations in observed extreme precipitation events for the conterminous United States. J. Hydrometeor. 13, 1131-1141.

Keeler, J. M., and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2012: Observations of Urban Heat Island Influence on Lake-Breeze Frontal Movement. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 51, 702–710.

Markus, M., D. J. Wuebbles, X.-Z. Liang, K. Hayhoe, and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2012: Diagnostic analysis of future climate scenarios applied to urban flooding in the Chicago metropolitan area. Climatic Change. 11, 879-902. DOI 10.1007/s10584-011-0172-z.

Barthold, F. E., and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2011: Observations of the cross-lake cloud and snow evolution in a lake-effect snow event. Mon. Wea. Rev. 139, 2386-2398.

Kunkel, K.E., D. R. Easterling, D.A.R. Kristovich, B. Gleason, L. Stoecker, and R. Smith, 2010: Recent increases in U.S. heavy precipitation associated with tropical cyclones. Geophysical Research Letters. 37, L24706, doi:10.1029/2010GL045164.


Kristovich, D. A. R., 2009: Climate Sensitivity of Great Lakes – Generated Weather Systems. In Climatology, Variability, and Change in the Midwest, S. C. Pryor, Editor. Indiana University Press, 236-250.

Kristovich, D. A. R., and K. E. Kunkel, 2009: Overview: Climate Hazards. In Climatology, Variability, and Change in the Midwest, S. C. Pryor, Editor. Indiana University Press, 219-224.

Westcott, N. E., and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2009: A climatology and case study of continental cold season dense fogs associated with low clouds. J. Appl. Meteor. and Climatol., 48, 2201-2214.

Gerbush, M.R., D.A. Kristovich, and N.F. Laird, 2008: Mesoscale Boundary Layer and Heat Flux Variations over Pack Ice–Covered Lake Erie. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47, 668–682, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JAMC1479.1

Rodriguez, R., D.A.R. Kristovich, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2007: Lake-to-Lake Cloud Bands: Frequencies and Locations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 4202-4213.

Schroeder, J.J., D.A.R. Kristovich, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2006: Boundary layer and microphysical influences of natural cloud seeding on a lake-effect snow storm. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 1842-1858.(Featured in the "Papers of Note" section, Bull. of the Amer. Meteorol. Soc., Sept. 2006)

Kristovich, D.A.R., and M. L. Spinar, 2005: Diurnal variations in lake-effect precipitation near the western Great Lakes. J. Hydrometeorology, 6, 210-218.


Grim, J. A., N. F. Laird, and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2004: Mesoscale Vortices Embedded within a lake-effect shoreline band. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 2269-2274.

Laird, N.F., and D.A.R. Kristovich, 2004: Comparison of observations with idealized model results for a method to resolve winter lake-effect mesoscale morphology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 1093-1103.

Laird, N.F., J.E. Walsh, and D.A.R. Kristovich, 2003: Model simulations examining the relationship of lake-effect morphology to lake shape, wind direction, and wind speed. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 2101-2111.

Kristovich, D.A.R., N.F. Laird, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2003: Convective evolution across Lake Michigan in a lake-effect snow event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 643-655.

Laird, N.F., D.A.R. Kristovich, and J.E. Walsh, 2003: Idealized Model Simulations Examining the Mesoscale Structure of Winter Lake-Effect Circulations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 206-221.

Kunkel, K.E., N.E. Westcott, and D.A.R. Kristovich, 2002: Effects of climate change on heavy lake-effect snowstorms near Lake Erie. J. Great Lakes Res., 28, 521-536.

Young, G.S., D.A.R. Kristovich, M.R. Hjelmfelt, and R.C. Foster, 2002: Rolls, Streets, Waves and More. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, electronic 1001-1001.

Young, G.S., D.A.R. Kristovich, M.R. Hjelmfelt, and R.C. Foster, 2002: Supplement to Rolls, Streets, Waves and More: A review of quasi-two dimensional structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 997–1001. Also, an extended electronic supplement.

Laird, N.F., and D.A.R. Kristovich, 2002:  Variations of sensible and latent heat fluxes from a Great Lakes buoy and associated synoptic weather patterns, J. Hydrometeor., 3, 3-12.

Laird, N.F., L. J. Miller, and D.A.R. Kristovich, 2001: Synthetic dual-Doppler analysis of a winter mesoscale vortex. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129,  312-331.

Laird, N.F., D.A.R. Kristovich, X.-Z. Liang, R.W. Arritt, and K. Labas, 2001: Lake Michigan lake breezes: Climatology, local forcing, and synoptic environment. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 409-424.

Kristovich, D.A.R., G.S. Young, J. Verlinde, P.J. Sousounis, P. Mourad, D. Lenschow, R.M. Rauber, M.K. Ramamurthy, B.F. Jewett, K. Beard, E. Cutrim, P.J. DeMott, E.W. Eloranta, M.R. Hjelmfelt, S.M. Kreidenweis, J. Martin, J. Moore, H.T. Ochs, D.C. Rogers, J. Scala, G. Tripoli, and J. Young, 2000: The Lake-Induced Convection Experiment (Lake-ICE) and the Snowband Dynamics Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 519-542.      https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(2000)081<0519:TLCEAT>2.3.CO;2

Kunkel, K.E., N.E. Westcott, and D.A.R. Kristovich, 2000: Effects of climate change on heavy lake-effect snowstorms  near Lake Erie and other Great Lakes. National Assessment on Impacts of Global Climate Change, Environmental Protection Agency.

Cooper, K.A., M.R. Hjelmfelt, D.A.R. Kristovich, N.F. Laird, and R.G. Derickson, 2000: Numerical simulations of convective rolls and cells in lake-effect snow bands. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3283–3295.


Kristovich, D.A.R., N.F. Laird, M.R. Hjelmfelt, R.G. Derickson, and K. Cooper, 1999: Transitions in boundary layer meso-g convective structures: An observational case study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 2895-2909.

Kristovich, D.A.R. and N.F. Laird, 1998:  Observations of widespread lake-effect cloudiness:  Influences of upwind conditions and lake surface temperatures. Wea. Forecasting., 13, 811-821.

Isard, S.A., D.A.R. Kristovich, S.H. Gage, C.J. Jones, and N.F. Laird, 1998: Atmospheric motion systems that influence the redistribution and accumulation of insects on the beaches of the Great Lakes in North America. Physical Aerobiology, vol. 1.

Kristovich, D. A. R., and R. R. Braham, Jr., 1998:  Mean profiles of moisture fluxes in snow-filled boundary layers. Bound.-Lay. Meteor., 87, 195-215.

Braham, R.R., Jr., and D.A.R. Kristovich, 1996:  On calculating the buoyancy of convective cores. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 654-658.

Kristovich, D.A.R., and R. Steve, 1995:  A Satellite Study of Cloud-Band Frequencies over the Great Lakes. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 2083-2090.

Laird, N.F., D.A.R. Kristovich, R.M. Rauber,  H.T. Ochs, III, and L.J. Miller, 1995:  The Cape Canaveral sea and river breezes:  Kinematic structure and convective initiation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 2942-2956.


Kristovich, D.A.R., 1993:  Mean circulations of boundary-layer rolls in lake-effect snow storms.  Bound.-Lay. Meteor., 63, 293-315.

Kristovich, D.A.R., 1992:  Discover Weather. Publications International, Lincolnwood, IL, 48 pp. (Reviewed in Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 778, nominated for AMS L.J. Battan Award).

Braham, R.R., Jr., D.A.R. Kristovich & M.J. Dungey, 1992: Comparison of lake-effect snow precipitation rates determined from radar and aircraft measurements, J. Appl. Meteor., 31, 237-246.


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