Overview
    Glossary
  Biogeochemical Cycles
  Spheres of B. Cycles
  Nitrogen Properties
  Simple Nitrogen Cycle
  Human Influences
  Spheres of the N Cycle
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Anthropogenic inputs and outputs

Anthropogenic inputs to and outputs from a sphere are the direct or indirect results of human activities. For example, the application of fertilizer to a field is a direct anthropogenic input to the geosphere. Industrial fixation of nitrogen (N2) gas to produce N fertilizer is a direct anthropogenic output from the atmosphere. Emission of nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere from denitrification of applied chemical N fertilizer is an indirect anthropogenic input to the atmosphere.

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