Overview
  Biogeochemical Cycles
  Spheres of B. Cycles
  Nitrogen Properties
  Simple Nitrogen Cycle
  Human Influences
  Spheres of the N Cycle
  Choose a Sphere
    Biosphere

Menu HELP


 
Glossary


 
The biosphere consists of all of the earth's organisms living in the geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. Research in recent decades has shown that the organisms participating in the nitrogen (N) cycle are essentially ubiquitous - living in guts of humans, animals, insects, worms, in plants, in dust and rain, to the bottom of the oceans, and down to many 100s of meters beneath the surface of the earth. Many of these recent research findings have yet to be incorporated into estimates of N budgets and reservoirs.

Nevertheless, it is clear that the biosphere's N reservoir is by far the smallest of the four spheres (Properties of Nitrogen) but its cycling of N is by far the largest (i.e., the turn-over rate of N is much greater in the biosphere than in any other sphere). The relatively large size of biospheric N cycling is fortunate because N is the limiting nutrient for much (if not most) life on earth and cycling increases the availability of N for growth.

The biosphere appears well designed from the viewpoint of energy efficiency in its use of N. Massive amounts of energy are required to reduce oxidized (nitrified) forms of N (e.g., NO2- and NO3-) to the ammoniacal forms of N which make up the proteins, enzymes and other essential biocompounds. Most of the N acquired and cycled is internal to the biosphere, with fixed, reduced forms of N making up the bulk of transfers within the food web of the biosphere's universe of plants, animals, and microorganisms.

An example of above-ground N transfer would be a plant producing a flower whose pollen is eaten by a butterfly. The butterfly is, in turn, eaten by a dragonfly which then gets eaten by a frog. The frog gets eaten by a snake which then gets eaten by a hawk. Each organism of this food chain represents a trophic level - level one being the plant and level six the hawk.

N transfer in the biosphere is more accurately depicted as a web than as a ladder or pyramid. The living tissues of all six trophic levels of the food chain are fed on by parasites. And generally 90 percent of the food eaten by any one tropic level is not passed up to the next highest level but is excreted as waste organic matter. And, as will be discussed, the N in these wastes feed whole communities of their own. Organisms can act on different trophic levels. For example, the frog can eat either the butterfly or the dragonfly. And a highly successful omnivore, such as Homo sapiens, can acquire N from any trophic level. Even the first trophic level (plants) acts on different trophic levels, e.g., plants utilize both inorganic- and organic-N. And organisms in the second trophic level - plant eaters (herbivores) - vary in the number of trophic levels capable of eating them. This is illustrated by the herbivores living on Illinois' most prevalent natural landscape element, the prairie:

"A considerable portion of the above ground biomass of a prairie was consumed each year by the grazing of a wide range of grazing animals, such as bison, elk, deer, rabbits and grasshoppers" (Robertson, 2000).

The number of trophic levels (levels of predators) above the bison and elk are different from the number existing above grasshoppers and rabbits.

Most of the N eaten by the herbivores, predators, and parasites was returned to the soil as organic wastes:

"Grazing increased growth in prairies, recycle[d] nitrogen through urine and feces, and trampling open[ed] up habitat for plant species that prefer some disturbance of the soil" (Robertson, 2000).

These organic wastes, along with dead biomass from above ground, and the roots of plants growing below ground - the roots of prairie plants can grow deeper into the soil that their aboveground parts grow into the air - supply the organic matter which supports the complex world of subterranean organisms.

Living in the soil are vast numbers of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, protozoans, nematodes, and algae. A cup of soil can contain as many bacteria as there are people living on earth. Less numerous microorganisms (such algae and protozoans) typically number only 1 to 10 billion in the 10 cm. surface slice of a m2 of soil. Given their short lifetimes and extremely high potential reproductive rates, living and dying microbial biomass turns over large amounts of N, more than half of the 5.8 billion metric tons/yr estimated to occur in the top 1 m. of world soil. As in the above-ground world, microbial herbivores (and parasites) are fed on by at least three trophic levels of microbial and soil animal predators.

The density of organisms living in the immediate root zone (rhizosphere) ranges from 10 to 100 times that of the bulk soil. Roots excrete readily decomposable organic substances and slough off tissue, thereby stimulating a high degree of microbial activity in the neighboring soil. High numbers of highly active free-living microorganisms attack soil particles to release plant nutrients which ultimately become available to the root. Other organisms infect the root and send strands well out into the soil. Dissolved soil nutrients pass through the microbial strands into the root and organic matter passes from the root into the strand to feed it.

A similar relationship exists between roots and N-fixing microorganisms. Organic matter exterior to the root stimulates free-living, N-fixing microorganisms. Other N-fixers infect roots and live in symbiosis with the plant. The symbiotic N-fixers generally fix more N that their free-living counterparts because the plant provides not only food but also a reducing environment to protect the N-fixing enzyme (nitrogenase) from the deleterious effects of O2 gas.

Clearly, the biosphere is complex. The difficulties this complexity imposes upon our understanding of the biospheric N cycle are compounded by the fact that so many units of the biosphere have virtually complete N cycles unto themselves. The typical plant growing in the soil of the geosphere stimulates N fixation. This typical plant also stimulates N mineralization, and nitrification by providing complex root exudates of carbohydrate and hormone-like substances, which stimulate microbial growth, and the growth of worms and other soil animals. The mucus, wastes, and other excretions of soil animals also promote N fixation, mineralization, and nitrification, and denitrification. Conversely N-fixing bacteria not only supply fixed N, they also supply plant growth stimulating substances and stimulate the growth of N-fixing nodules in legumes. Furthermore, "Root infective arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase root surface area thereby assisting the roots in exploring a large soil volume. AMF infection is known to increase nutrient uptake, N2 fixation, plant tolerance to soil chemical constraints (acidity, alkalinity, salinity), toxic elements and drought. They also help in biological control of root pathogens and are involved in nutrient cycling (solubilization, mineralization)" (Baligar and Fageria, 1999, p. 199).

Aquatic ecosystems present an even more complex picture than do the plant-based ecosystems of the geosphere. This is because the rooting zone of aquatic vegetation not only presents the same complex N cycle picture as does terrestrial vegetation, but also the same suite of interactions exists to a significant extent on the plant surfaces exposed to water - the aquatic surfaces of plants being mini-ecosystems unto themselves and in free-living (planktonic) algae living in the water.

For example, planktonic algae of an productive (eutrophic) lake can fix an amount of N equal to nearly half that received annually in runoff and atmospheric deposition. It is not unusual for aquatic plants (macrophytes) to have amounts of algae and bacteria living on them equal to the total weight of the plants themselves. The productivity of algae living on aquatic plants (epiphytic) occupying 1/4th of the area of a lake can account for 3/4ths of the total algal productivity of even a productive lake in a limestone watershed. "Nitrogen fixation by epipelic [bottom living], as well as epiphytic, blue-green algae and bacteria is common..." (Wetzel, 1983, p. 567). Blue-green algae living on the surfaces of vascular aquatic plants have been reported as fixing N at rates from 15 kg N/ha-yr to greater than 500 kg N/ha-yr at plant densities of 200 g plant dry weight/m2 (e.g., Goering and Parker, 1972; Head and Carpenter, 1975).

Individual wetlands can have vascular plant densities that range from 0 to 1,000s g plant dry weight/m2. N-fixation may be appreciable across the whole range of values. For example, N-fixing microorganism living in and on the stems of living and dead Spartina (2200 g plant dry weight/m2) fixed an amount of N during the month of July alone that "...was at least 1550 kg N2/ha. The barren zone, during its peak fixation month of July had a potential nitrogen input of 210 kg N2/ha. In comparison, the growing season of an alfalfa crop encompasses at least two months, and during this period approximately 250 kg N2/ha are produced. During the growing season, a crop of soybeans fixes about 150 kg N2/ha (Stewart, 1966)." (Green and Edmisten, 1974, p. 125).

So-called barren zones of wetland areas lack growth of vascular plants but often have appreciable growths of algae. Algae living in the top 0.25 cm. of marsh soil have been shown to fix 64 Kg N2/ha-yr and blue-green algal mats living on top of marsh soil have been shown to fix over 200 Kg N2/ha-yr (Carpenter et al., 1978). N-fixation in the top 8 in. of wetland soil at 15oC has been shown to be 144 kg N/ha in a 180-day period (Tjepkema and Evans, 1976).

Furthermore, aquatic and wetland sediments undergo especially intense N cycling. For example, populations of N-fixing bacteria are especially large in oxygen-free, waterlogged sediments. In such environments N-fixing microorganisms do not have to expend as much energy to protect the N-fixing enzyme (nitrogenase) as they would in oxic sediment. This, plus a usually plentiful supply of organic matter to use as sources of energy, make for relatively intense N-fixation on the order of 10s to 100s of kg N/ha-yr in natural wetlands and aquatic sediments. This has also been also been demonstrated experimentally. For example a review of the literature reported, "In waterlogged soils amended with 1 % straw, or less, nitrogen fixation rates up to 150 kg ha-1 a-1 were achieved; with 5 to 20 % straw and waterlogged conditions 500 to 1000 kg ha-1 a-1 were fixed. The responsible organism was Clostridium butyricum and Meiklejohn (1967) also found that the number of clostridia increased considerably when approximately 678 to 1356 kg/ha of compost was added to the soil." (Stewart, 1969, p. 370).

N fixation has been reported to be especially intense in the rhizosphere of aquatic plants, e.g.,

"For a typical T. testudinum stand, N2 fixation is estimated to be 100 to 500 kg N/hectare per year. Numbers of N2-fixing in the rhizosphere sediments were roughly 50 to 300 times more abundant than those in the non-rhizosphere sediments..." (Patriquin and Knowles, 1972, p. 49).

And for a stand of maximum productivity, N-fixation was estimated to be "...350 to 1700 kg N/hectare per year. These estimates are comparable to estimates of N2 fixation associated with legumes, which are typically in the range 110 to 220 kg N/hectare per year" (Patriquin and Knowles, 1972, p. 56).

These reducing aquatic and wetland sediments also are the site of appreciable denitrification of NO3-N produced in the surface oxidized sediment layer (if present) and/or brought in from overlying oxygenated water (if present) to the reducing environment of the underlying waterlogged sediments. However some of this N gas is recycled by N fixation.

Whereas the biosphere appears to be energy and material inefficient in utilizing only a small part of available N - that portion which undergoes nitrification/denitrification - these apparent inefficiencies are also part of an excellent design. Namely, the leakage of N through nitrification/denitrification allows N to spread out from N-rich environments in solution as NO3- and as gases - much as seeds can spread out and away from trees. In this way the N-rich portions of the biosphere "seed" the entire earth with N.

People are part of the biosphere. Since the harnessing of fire, long before the dawn of recorded history, essentially wherever people have lived they have had a profound influence on the biosphere and its N reservoir and N cycle. Fire generally promoted the growth of N-rich vegetation which, in turn, promoted the accumulation of soil N through the humification of the N-rich organic matter. Fire also stimulated symbiotic and asymbiotic microbial N fixation directly. N fixation was indirectly promoted by fire as it enhanced the biomass to support large herds of grazing animals to live on the N-enriched landscape.

Fire also enhanced the flow of terrestrial N to the atmosphere and the hydrosphere (surface and ground waters). Nevertheless, in spite of the increased transfers, the fire-induced gains in terrestrial N were generally greater than the fire-induced losses to the atmosphere and hydrosphere (Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle).

In Illinois, and much of the Midwest, annual burnings by Native Americans kept the N cycle (and other nutrient cycles) at high rates of fixation, transfer and accumulation. Fire also shaped the vegetation. Whereas now Illinois is ecologically mapped as being in the eastern hardwoods ecoregion (if you abandon land, trees grow on it) when Europeans began settling the state, 9 million ha. of Illinois' 14 million ha. of land was prairie due to repeated burning by Native Americans and intense grazing by buffalo and other animals. And the one-third of Illinois that was forested had more park-like forests than the forests of today - the forest floor being rich in grasses and legumes, and the species composition of the forest overstory was different.

Early explorers and settlers noted than once Native Americans were cleared off the land in advance of European settlement, prairies soon stated growing up into trees. And the large herds of buffalo and other animals whose dung and bones littered the landscape also disappeared within 20 years after the departure of the herds. As with the forests, the remaining prairies changed in plant composition and lost most of their N-fixing legumes.

The clearing of land by the European settlers went slowly at first. Populations were low relative to today's standards and modification of the land had to be done by hand and animal power, not machines as are used today. By 1900 only about 4 million ha. of Illinois was plowed and growing row crops. Machine power enabled the drainage of about 4 million additional ha. of land (mostly in the 20th century) and the total area of Illinois in crop land increased to 9.3 million ha. Drainage and leveeing reduced the organic and nutrient loadings that aquatic and wetland vegetation imposed on Illinois' surface waters.

At first, the prairie soils were too rich in N and other nutrients to grow crops well. After some years fertility declined but bumper crops could still be grown for decades without addition of N and other nutrients. For decades there was still so much N in the soils that crusts of nitrate salts were an unremarkable phenomenon in Midwest soils. And so much nitrate could accumulate in animal forage that animals eating it were poisoned.

However, over time soil-N levels and crop yields dropped to low levels. In the second half of the 20th century crop yields increased to record levels due to improved soil and crop management techniques, development of new plant varieties, and the use of chemical fertilizers.

There are major challenges to estimating historical mass balances for the biosphere and human impacts on it. For example, in estimating the impacts of agriculture to Illinois' N mass balance the effect of removing the N-fixing prairie ecosystem needs to be taken into consideration. Such mass balance estimates need to take into account the agriculturally-induced decrease in the soil-N reservoir and concomitant decreases in natural soil-N cycling. Human impacts must consider both anthropogenically-induced reductions as well as additions. So far, only additions are considered in N mass balances.

For example, today's natural N cycle is generally considered only from the viewpoint of its being an imperfect filter against the removal (by denitrification) of anthropogenic N additions. However, today's natural ecosystem still has a N-fixing component which needs to be taken into consideration. Mass balance studies in Illinois have yet to consider how anthropogenic N additions interact with the whole of the remaining natural N cycle: an example being that N additions will reduce asymbiotic and symbiotic N fixation in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

Conversely, massive pollution of surface waters by phosphorus (P) in detergents and other pollutants greatly increased blooms of N-fixing algae which contributed to the N enrichment and eutrophication of lakes and rivers. Fortunately, timely recognition of the importance of controlling phosphorus pollution in the 1960's and 1970's led to a subsequent reversal in eutrophication and associated N enrichment by blooms of N-fixing algae (e.g., Paerl, 1990). The recognition of the relationship between P-enriched environments and concentration of NO3- in water goes back to the 1920s (McHargue and Peter, 1921). But such interaction of N with P and other elemental cycles in the biosphere has yet to be considered in Illinois mass balance studies (e.g., David and Gentry, 2000a, b) nor have they been used to explain trends in water quality (Krug and Winstanley, 2000).

The challenges to estimating historical mass balances for the biosphere and human impacts on it are formidable; and we have a long way to go in recognizing and overcoming them.
 
 

References Cited:

Baligar, V.C. and N.K. Fageria. 1999. Plant nutrient efficiency: Towards the second paradigm. Soil Fertility, Soil Biology, and Plant Nutrition Interrelationships. J.O. Siqueira, F.M.S. Moreira, A.S. Lopes, L.R.G. Guilherme, V. Faquin, A.E.F. Neto, and J.G. Carvalho (eds.). Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departmento de Ciencia do Solo, Lavras - MG, Brazil.

Carpenter, E.J., Van Raalte, C.D., and I. Valiela. 1978. Nitrogen fixation by algae in a Massachusetts salt marsh. Limnol. Oceanogr. 23:318-327.

David, M.B., and L.E. Gentry. 2000a. Anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus and riverine export for Illinois, USA. J. Environ. Qual. 29:491-508.

David, M.B., and L.E. Gentry. 2000b. Nitrogen - The state of our State. Illinois Steward 8(4):23-28.

Goering, J.J. and P.L. Parker. 1972. Nitrogen fixation by epiphytes on sea grasses. Limnol. Oceanogr. 17:320-323.

Green, F. and J. Edmisten. 1974. Seasonality of nitrogen fixation in Gulf Coast salt marshes. Phenology and Seasonality Modeling, H. Lieth (ed.). Springer-Verlag, New York. pp. 113-126.

Head, W.D. and E.J. Carpenter. 1975. Nitrogen fixation associated with the marine macroalga Codium fragile. Limnol. Oceanogr. 20:815-823.

Krug, E.C. and D. Winstanley. 2000. A contribution to the characterization of Illinois/reference background conditions for setting nitrogen criteria for surface waters in Illinois. Illinois State Water Survey Contract Report 2000-08, Champaign.

McHargue, J.S., and A.M. Peter. 1921. The removal of mineral plant-food by natural drainage waters. Kentucky Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 237, Lexington.

Paerl, H.W. 1990. Physiological ecology and regulation of N2 fixation in natural waters. Adv. Microb. Ecol. 11(8):305-344.

Patriquin, D. and R. Knowles. 1972. Nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere of marine angiosperms. Mar. Biol. 16:49-58.

Robertson, K.R. 2000. The tallgrass prairie in Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL. www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~kenr/tallgrass.html

Stewart, W.D.P. 1969. Biological and ecological aspects of nitrogen fixation by free-living micro-organisms. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 172:367-388.

Tjepkema, J.D. and H.J. Evans. 1976. Nitrogen fixation associated with Juncus balticus and other plants of Oregon wetlands. Soil Biol. Biochem. 8:505-509.

Wetzel, R.G. 1983. Limnology. Second Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia.


Suggested Reading:

Anonymous. 2000. 2001 Soil Planning Guide. U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service and Soil Science Society of America. 1-888-LANDCARE.

Ahlgren, I.F., and C.E. Ahlgren. 1960. Ecological effects of forest fires. Bot. Rev. 26:483-533.

Albrecht, W.A. 1938. Loss of soil organic matter and its restoration. Soils and Men. Yearbook of Agriculture 1938. U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., pp. 347-360.

Aldrich, S.R. 1980. Nitrogen in Relation to Food, Environment, and Energy. Special Publication 61, Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

Allison, F.E., S.R. Hoover, and H.J. Morris. 1937. Physiological studies with the nitrogen-fixing alga, Nostoc muscorum. Bot. Gaz. 98:433-463.

Anderson, I.C., J.S. Levine, M.A. Poth, and P.J. Riggan. 1988. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning. J. Geophys. Res. 93:3893-3898.

Avery, D.T. 1991. Global Food Progress 1991: A Report from the Hudson Institute's Center for Global Food Issues. Hudson Institute, Indianapolis, IN.

Bakeless, J. 1961. America as Seen by Its First Explorers. The Eyes of Discovery. Dover Publications, Inc., New York.

Bauer, A., C.V. Cole, and A.L. Black. 1987. Soil property comparisons in virgin grasslands between grazed and nongrazed management systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:176-182.

Beevers, L. and R.H. Hageman. 1969. Nitrate reduction in higher plants. Ann. Review Plant Physiology 20:495-522.

Bellrose, F.C., Jr. 1941. Duck food plants of the Illinois River Valley. Illinois Natural History Survey Bull. 21(8):237-280.

Bergersen, F.J. and E.H. Hipsley. 1970. The presence of N2-fixing bacteria in the intestines of man and animals. J. Gen. Microbiol. 60:61-65.

Bishop, H.O. 1932. The wild pigeon. Amer. For. 38:594-598, 620, 622.

Brady, N.C. 1974. The Nature and Property of soils. 8th Edition. MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York.

Braun, S.T., L.M. Proctor, S. Zani, M.T. Mellon, and J.P. Zehr. 1999. Molecular evidence for zooplankton-associated nitrogen-fixing anaerobes based on amplification of the nifH gene. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 28:273-279.

Breznak, J.A., W.J. Brill, J.W. Mertins, and H.C. Coppel. 1973. Nitrogen fixation in termites. Nature 244:577-580.

Brezonik, P.L. and C.L. Harper. 1969. Nitrogen fixation in some anoxic lacustrine environments. Science 164:1277-1279.

Brouzes, R., J. Lasik, and R. Knowles. 1969. The effect of organic amendment, water content, and oxygen on the incorporation of 15N2 by some agricultural and forest soils. Can. J. Microbiol. 15:899-905.

Buck, S.J. 1912. Pioneer letters of Gershom Flagg. Trans. Illinois State Historical Society 1910:139-183.

Buck, S.J. 1967. Illinois in 1818. Second Edition. University of Illinois Press, Champaign.

Butzer, K.W. 1978. Changing Holocene environments at the Koster site: A geo-archaeological perspective. Am. Antiquity 43:408-413.

Campbell, N.E.R., R. Dunlar, and H. Lees. 1967. The production of 13N2 by 50-MeV protons for use in biological nitrogen fixation. Can. J. Microbiol. 13:587-599.

Caron, D.A., K.G. Porter, and R.W. Sanders. 1990. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus budgets for the misotrophic phytoflagellate Poterioochromonas malhamensis (Chrysophyceae) during bacterial ingestion. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35:433-443.

Goering, J.J. and P.L. Parker. 1972. Nitrogen fixation by epiphytes on sea grasses. Limnol. Oceanogr. 17:17-27.

Chakraborty, S.P. and S.P. Sen Gupta. 1959. Fixation of nitrogen by the rice plant. Nature 184:2033-2034.

Chichester, F.W., R.W. Van Keuren, and J.L. McGuinness. 1979. Hydrology and chemical quality of flow from small pastured watersheds: II. Chemical quality. J. Environ. Qual. 8:167-171.

Clark, F.E., and E.A. Paul. 1970. The microflora of grasslands. Adv. Agron. 22:375-435.

Clawson, M.L. and D.R. Benson. 1999. Natural diversity of Frankia strains in actinorhizal root nodules from promiscous hosts in the family Myricaceae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:4521-4527.

Cole, C.V., and R.D. Heil. 1981. Phosphorus effects on terrestrial nitrogen cycling. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 33:363-374.

Conner, S.D. 1922. Nitrogen in relation to crop production in the middle west. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 14:179-182.

Cooper, C.F. 1961. The ecology of fire. Sci. Am. 204(4):150-160.

Crutzen, P.J., and M.O. Andreae. 1990. Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. Science 250:1669-1678.

Csaky, T.Z. and L. Toth. 1948. Enzymatic breakdown of nitrogen compounds by the nitrogen fixing bacteria of insects. Experientia 4:73-74.

Curtis, J.T. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin. An Ordination of Plant Communities. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

Day, G.M. 1953. The Indian as an ecological factor in the northeastern forest. Ecology 34:329-346.

Denevan, W.M. 1992a. The pristine myth: The landscape of the Americas in 1492. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geographers 82:369-385.

Dhillion, S.S., R.C. Anderson, and A.E. Liberta. 1988. Effect of fire on the mycorrhizal ecology of little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium). Can. J. Bot. 66:706-713.

Dickens, C. 1996. (reprinted). American Notes and Pictures from Italy. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Fay, P. 1965. Heterotrophy and nitrogen fixation in Chlorogloea fritschii. J. Gen. Microbiol. 39:11-20.

Feth, J.H. 1966. Nitrogen compounds in natural water-A review. Water Resourc. Res. 2:41-58.

Finke, L.R. and H.W. Seeley, Jr. 1978. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by epiphytes of freshwater macrophytes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 36:129-138.

Fliermans, C.B., and D.L. Balkwill. 1989. Microbial life in deep terrestrial subsurfaces. BioScience 39:370-377.

Galeone, D.G. 1999. Calibration of paired basins prior to streambank fencing of pasture land. J. Environ. Qual. 28:1853-1863.

Galloway, J.N. 1998. The global nitrogen-cycle: Changes and consequences. Nitrogen, the Confer-N-s: First International Nitrogen Conference 1998, K.W. Van der Hoek, J.W. Erisman, S. Smeulders, J.R. Wisniewski & J. Wisniewski (eds.). 23-27 March 1998 Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands. Elsevier, Amsterdam. pp. 15-24.

Galloway, J.N., W.H. Schlesinger, H. Levy, A. Muchat, and J.L. Schnoor. 1995. Nitrogen fixation: Anthropogenic enhancement-environmental response. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9(2):235-252.

George, W.O. and W.W. Hastings, 1951. Nitrate in the ground water of Texas. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 32:450-456.

Gibson, D.J. 1989. Effects of animal disturbance on tallgrass prairie vegetation. Am. Midl. Nat. 121:144-154.

Gifford, G.F. and R.H. Hawkins. 1978. Hydrologic impact of grazing on infiltration: A critical review. Water Resourc. Res. 14:305-313.

Gleason, H.A. 1922. The vegetational history of the Middle West. Annals Assoc. Amer. Geogr. 12:39-85.

Granhall, U. and P. Ciszuk. 1971. Nitrogen fixation in rumen contents indicated by the acetylene reduction test. J. Gen. Microbiol. 65:91-93.

Granhall, U. and A. Lundgren. 1971. Nitrogen fixation in Lake Erken. Limnol. Oceanogr. 16:711-719.

Grant, W.D. 1976. Microbial degradation of condensed tannins. Science 193:1137-1139.

Greene, S.W. 1935. Effect of annual grass fires on organic matter and other constituents of virgin longleaf pine soils. J. Agric. Res. 50:809-822.

Griffith, W.K. 1978. Effects of phosphorus and potassium on nitrogen fixation. Phosphorus for Agriculture. A Situation Analysis. Potash/Phosphate Institute, Atlanta, GA, pp. 80-94.

Haugen, A.O., and M.J. Shult. 1973. Approximating pre-white-man animal influences and relationships in prairie natural areas. Proc. Third Midwest Prairie Conf., L.C. Hulbert (ed.). Kansas State University, Manhattan, September 22-23, 1972. Kansas State University, Manhattan, pp. 17-19.

Hewes, L. 1950. Some features of early woodland and prairie settlement in a central Iowa county. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 40:40-57.

Hewes, L. 1951. The northern wet prairie of the United States: Nature, sources of information, and extent. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 41:307-323.

Hood, R.R., A.F. Michaels, and D.G. Capone. 2000. Answers sought to the enigma of marine nitrogen fixation. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81:133, 138-139.

Hough, R.A. and R.G. Wetzel. 1975. The release of dissolved organic carbon from submersed aquatic macrophytes: Diel, seasonal, and community relationships. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 19:939-948.

Jenny, H. 1941. Factors of Soil Formation: A System of Quantitative Pedology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York.

Jewell, W.J. 1971. Aquatic weed decay: Dissolved oxygen utilization and nitrogen and phosphorus regeneration. J. Water Pollut. Contr. Assoc. 43:1457-1467.

Kayll, A.J. 1974. Use of fire in land management. Fire and Ecosystems. T.T. Koslowski and C.E. Ahlgren (eds.). Academic Press, New York. pp. 483-511.

Kelly, J.M. 1981. Carbon flux to surface mineral soil after nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45:669-670.

Khoja, T. and B.A. Whitton. 1971. Heterotrophic growth of blue-green algae. Arch. Mikrobiol. 79:280-282.

King, F.H., and A.R. Whitson. 1901. Development and Distribution of Nitrates and Other Soluble Salts in Cultivated Soils. University of Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 85, Madison.

Kinzig, A.P., and R.H. Socolow. 1994. Human impacts on the nitrogen-cycle. Physics Today 47(11):24-31.

Kofoid, C.A. 1903. Plankton Studies. IV. The Plankton of the Illinois River, 1894-1899, with Introductory Notes upon the Hydrography of the Illinois River and Its Basin. Part I. Quantitative Investigations and General Results. Bull. Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 6:95-635.

Leighton, M.O. 1907. Pollution of the Illinois and Mississippi River Rivers by Chicago Sewage. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 194, Series L, Quality of Water 20. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Levine, J.S., W.R. Cofer III, D.I. Sebacher, E.L. Winstead, S. Sebacher, and P.J. Boston. 1988. The effects of fire on biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide. Global Biogechem. Cycles 2:445-449.

Levine, J.S., W.R. Cofer III, D.R. Cahoon, Jr., E.L. Winstead, D.I. Sebacher, M.C. Scholes, D.A.B. Parsons, and R.J. Scholes. 1996. Biomass burning, biogenic soil emissions, and the global nitrogen budget. Biomass Burning and Global Change. Volume 1. Remote Sensing, Modeling and Inventory Development, and Biomass Burning in Africa. J.S. Levine (Ed.). The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 370-380.

Lindahl, G., K. Wallstrom, and G. Brattberg. 1980. Short-term variations in nitrogen fixation in a coastal area of the Northern Baltic. Arch. Hydrobiol. 89:88-100.

Madsen, E.L., and W.C. Ghiorse. 1993. Groundwater microbiology: Subsurface ecosystem processes. Aquatic Microbiology. An Ecological Approach, T.E. Ford (ed.). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England, pp. 167-213.

Malin, J.C. 1952. Man, the State of Nature, and climax: As illustrated by some problems of the North American grassland. Sci. Monthly 74:29-37.

Malin, J.C. 1953. Soil, animal, and plant relations of the grassland, historically reconsidered. Sci. Monthly 76:207-220.

Manny, B.A., R.G. Wetzel, and W.C. Johnson. 1975. Annual contribution of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus by migrant Canadian geese to a hardwater lake. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 19:949-951.

Matulewich, V.A. and M.S. Finstein. 1978. Distribution of autotrophic nitrifying bacteria in a polluted river (the Passaic). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 35:67-71.

Moore, A.W. 1969. Azolla: Biology and agronomic significance. Bot. Rev. 35:17-34.

National Research Council. 1977. Nitrogen Oxides. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. pp. 20-25.

Niering, W.A., and G.D. Dreyer. 1989. Effects of prescribed burning on Andropogon scoparius in postagricultural grasslands in Connecticut. Am. Midl. Nat. 122:88-102.

Old, S.M. 1969. Microclimate, fire, and plant production in an Illinois prairie. Ecol. Monogr. 39:356-384.

Paerl, H.W. 1985. Microzone formation: Its role in the enhancement of aquatic N2 fixation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30:1246-1252.

Pentelow, F.T.K. 1956. The biology of rivers in relation to pollution. Surveyor (& Municipal & County Engineer) 115:9-12.

Pieters, A.J. 1927. Green Manuring. Principles and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

Polsinelli, M., R. Materassi, and M. Vincenzini (eds.). 1991. Nitrogen Fixation. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Legumes. Florence, Italy, 10-14 September 1990. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Rasmussen, W.D. (ed.). 1960. Readings in the History of American Agriculture. University of Illinois Press, Champaign.

Reddy, K.R., W.H. Patrick, Jr., and C.W. Lindau. 1989. Nitrification-denitrification at the plant root-sediment interface in wetlands. Limnol. Oceanogr. 34:1004-1013.

Rice, W.A., E.A. Paul, and L.R. Wetter. 1967. The role of anaerobiosis in asymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Can. J. Microbiol. 13:829-836.

Rice, E.L. 1964. Inhibition of nitrogen-fixing and nitrifying bacteria by seed plants. Ecology 45:824-837.

Rice, E.L. 1967. Chemical warfare between plants. Bios 38:67-74.

Risser, P.G., and W.J. Parton. 1982. Ecosystem analysis of the tallgrass prairie: Nitrogen cycle. Ecology 63:1342-1351.

Roe, F.G. 1951. The North American Buffalo. A Critical Study of the Species in Its Wild State. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, P.Q., Canada.

Rosswall, T. 1976. The internal nitrogen cycle between microorganisms, vegetation and soil. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur-Global Cycles. SCOPE Report 7, B.H. Svensson, and R. Soderlund (eds.). Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 22:157-167.

Sachs, J.P. and D.J. Repeta. Oligotrophy and nitrogen fixation during eastern Mediterranean sapropel events. Science 286:2485-2488.

Sauer, C.O. 1916. Geography of the Upper Illinois Valley and History of Development. Illinois State Geological Survey Bull. No. 27, Urbana.

Sauer, C.O. 1950. Grassland, climax, fire, and man. J. Range Mangmt. 3:16-21.

Scarseth, G.D., H.L. Cook, B.A. Krantz, and A.J. Ohlrogge. 1943. How To Fertilize Corn Effectively in Indiana. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 482, Lafayette, IN.

Schoolcraft, H.R. 1918. Pictures of Illinois One Hundred Years Ago. Part III. A Journey up the Illinois River in 1821 - Schoolcraft, M.M. Quaife (ed.). The Lakeside Classics Series, R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company, Chicago, pp. 83-160.

Schreiner, O., and M.X. Sullivan. 1909. Soil fatigue caused by organic compounds. J. Biol. Chem. 6:39-50.

Schreiner, O. and B.E. Brown. 1938. Soil nitrogen. Soils & Men. Yearbook of Agriculture 1938. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp. 361-376.

Smil, V. 1999. Nitrogen in crop production: An account of global flows. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13:647-662.

Smith, W.C. 1913. How to Grow One Hundred Bushels of Corn per Acre on Worn Soils. Stewart and Kidd, Co., Cincinnati, OH.

Snyder, H. 1905. Soils and Fertilizers. The Chemical Publishing Company, Easton, PA.

Soderlund, R., and B.H. Svensson. 1976. The global nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur-Global Cycles. SCOPE Report 7, B.H. Svensson and R. Soderlund (eds.). Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 22:23-73.

Spitzy, A.N. 1988. Dissolved organic matter in groundwaters from different climates. Mitt. Geol.-Palaont. Inst. Univ. Hamburg SCOPE/UNEP Sonderband 66:377-413.

Sprent, J.I. 1987. The Ecology of the Nitrogen Cycle. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Stake, E. 1967. Higher vegetation and nitrogen in a rivulet in central Sweden. Schweizrische Zeitschrift fur hydrologie 29:107-124.

Starrett, W.C. 1972. Man and the Illinois River. River Ecology and Man, R.T. Oglesby, C.A. Carlson, and J.A. McCann (eds.). Academic Press, New York, pp. 131-169.

Stevenson, F.J. 1982. Origin and distribution of nitrogen in soil. Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils (F.J. Stevenson, ed.). Agronomy Monograph No. 22. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. pp. 1-42.

Stevenson, F.J. 1986. Cycles of Soil: Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Micronutrients. Wiley Interscience, New York.

Stewart, O.C. 1951. Burning and natural vegetation in the United States. Geograph. Rev. 41:317-320.

Strong, W.D. 1926. The Indian Tribes of the Chicago Region with Special Reference to the Illinois and the Potawatomi. Field Museum of Natural History Anthropology Leaflet 24, Chicago, IL.

Sutton, R.P. (ed.). 1976. The Prairie State. A Documentary History of Illinois: Colonial Years to 1860. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI.

Talkington, L.K. 1991. The Illinois River: Working for Our State. Illinois State Water Survey Miscellancous Pubication 128. Champaign.

Toetz, D.W. 1974. Uptake and translocation of ammonia by freshwater hydrophytes. Ecology 55:199-201.

Turner, R.E. and N.N. Rabalais. 1991. Changes in Mississippi River water quality this century. BioScience 41:140-147.

Viets, F.G., Jr. 1970. Soil use and water quality-A look into the future. J. Agric. Food Chem. 18:789-792.

Viets, F.G., Jr. 1971. Water quality in relation to farm use of fertilizer. BioScience 21:460-467.

Viets, F.G., Jr., and R.H. Hageman. 1971. Factors affecting the accumulation of nitrate in soil, water, and plants. Agriculture Handbook 413. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Visser, S.A. 1964. Origin of nitrates in tropical rainwater. Nature 201:35-36.

Wang, W.C. 1975. Chemistry of mud-water interface in an impoundment. Water Resourc. Bull. 11:666-675.

Watanable, A. and Y. Yamamoto. 1967. Heterotrophic nitrogen fixation by the blue-green alga Anabaenopsis circularis. Nature 214:738.

Welch, L.F. 1979. Nitrogen Use and Behavior in Crop Production. Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 761. Urbana.

Wetzel, R.G. 1979. The role of the littoral zone and detritus in lake metabolism. Arch. Hydrobiol. Ergebn. Limnol. 13:145-161.

Wetzel, R..G. and B.A. Manny. 1972. Secretion of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen by aquatic macrophytes. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 18:162-170.

Woodmansee, R.G. and L.S. Wallach. 1981. Effects of fire regimes on biogeochemical cycles. Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycles. Processes, Ecosystem Strategies and Management Impacts. F.E. Clark and T. Rosswall (eds.). Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 33:649-669.

Wu, J., and B.A. Babcock. 1999. Metamodeling potential nitrate water pollution in the central United States. J. Environ. Qual. 28:1916-1928.

Yoshida, T. and R.R. Ancajas. 1971. Nitrogen fixation by bacteria in the root zone of rice. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 35:156-158.

Zucker, L.A., and L.C. Brown (eds.). 1998. Agricultural Drainage: Water Quality Impacts and Subsurface Drainage Studies in the Midwest. Ohio State University Extension Bulletin 871. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.



Overview w B. Cycle w Spheres w N Props w N Cycle w Influences w N Spheres